Peter, His Faith, or Christ as the Rock? What St. Augustine Actually Taught

Rock Cliff Boat Costa Boats Sea Church Castle

 

There are actually plenty of quotes from Augustine with interpretations of Matthew 16:18 which at first glance favors the retractors of Petrine Primacy. Orthodox and Protestants often cite these passages to show the Early Church Fathers never taught Peter was the Rock on which the Church was founded.

 

𝘕𝘰𝘾 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 𝘯𝘱𝘼𝘩 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘾𝘱𝘮 𝘹đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼 𝘣đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜“đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘯 𝘱 𝘧đ˜Șđ˜šđ˜¶đ˜łđ˜Š, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜­đ˜„ 𝘮đ˜Ș𝘹𝘯đ˜Ș𝘧đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. 𝘍𝘰𝘳 𝘮𝘩𝘩đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź (đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜łđ˜ą), đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘱𝘯 đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜°đ˜±đ˜­đ˜Š. 𝘍𝘰𝘳 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź (đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜łđ˜ą) đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘰𝘳đ˜Ș𝘹đ˜Ș𝘯𝘱𝘭 𝘯𝘱𝘼𝘩. đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜§đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Š đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜Ș𝘮 𝘮𝘰 đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź; đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł; 𝘱𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘱𝘯, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘱𝘯 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”. ‘đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜§đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Š,’ đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜©, ‘đ˜›đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜” đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł; đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Źđ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„, đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜ąđ˜€đ˜Źđ˜Żđ˜°đ˜žđ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„đ˜šđ˜Šđ˜„, 𝘮𝘱đ˜șđ˜Ș𝘯𝘹, ‘đ˜›đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„, 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 𝘐 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘔đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©;’ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż 𝘔đ˜ș𝘮𝘩𝘭𝘧, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„, ‘𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 𝘐 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘔đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©.’ 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Š đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż 𝘔đ˜ș𝘮𝘩𝘭𝘧, đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” 𝘔đ˜ș𝘮𝘩𝘭𝘧 đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Š. 𝘍𝘰𝘳 𝘼𝘩𝘯 đ˜žđ˜©đ˜° 𝘾đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° 𝘣𝘩 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜” đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż 𝘼𝘩𝘯, 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, ‘𝘐 𝘱𝘼 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜­; đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘐 𝘰𝘧 đ˜ˆđ˜±đ˜°đ˜­đ˜­đ˜°đ˜Ž; đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘐 𝘰𝘧 đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜±đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Ž, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜° đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł. đ˜‰đ˜¶đ˜” đ˜°đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Ž đ˜žđ˜©đ˜° đ˜„đ˜Șđ˜„ đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” 𝘾đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜© đ˜”đ˜° 𝘣𝘩 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜” đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, ‘đ˜‰đ˜¶đ˜” 𝘐 𝘱𝘼 𝘰𝘧 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”.’ đ˜ˆđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜ˆđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜­đ˜Š đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜­ đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜€đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜”đ˜ąđ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜€đ˜©đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜Ż, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜±đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„, đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, ‘𝘐𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜„đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Șđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜„? 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜­ đ˜€đ˜łđ˜¶đ˜€đ˜Ș𝘧đ˜Șđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘧𝘰𝘳 đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶? 𝘰𝘳 𝘾𝘩𝘳𝘩 đ˜ș𝘩 đ˜Łđ˜ąđ˜±đ˜”đ˜Șđ˜»đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘯𝘱𝘼𝘩 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜­?’ đ˜ˆđ˜Żđ˜„, 𝘱𝘮 đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘯𝘱𝘼𝘩 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜­, 𝘮𝘰 𝘯𝘩đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘯𝘱𝘼𝘩 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł; đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘯𝘱𝘼𝘩 𝘰𝘧 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”: đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘼đ˜Șđ˜šđ˜©đ˜” 𝘣𝘩 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜” đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł. — Translated by R.G. MacMullen. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series, Vol. 6. Edited by Philip Schaff. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1888.)

 

đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘮𝘩𝘩, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜” đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” 𝘰𝘯 𝘱 𝘼𝘱𝘯 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” 𝘰𝘯 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Ž đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Ș𝘰𝘯. đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Ž đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Ș𝘰𝘯? ‘đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„.’ đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Ž đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘧𝘰𝘳 đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Ž đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜§đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Ž đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Š đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Ž 𝘣𝘩𝘩𝘯 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜”, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜Ž 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜žđ˜°đ˜łđ˜­đ˜„ đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜Čđ˜¶đ˜Šđ˜ł. — John Rotelle, O.S.A., Ed., The Works of Saint Augustine , © 1993 New City Press, Sermons, Vol III/6, Sermon 229P.1, p. 327

 

đ˜œđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜“đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„, 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. đ˜œđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Ș𝘰𝘯, đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, ‘đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„,’ 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜Ž 𝘰𝘧 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜Čđ˜¶đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł (đ˜”đ˜”. 16:18). — John Rotelle, Ed., The Works of Saint Augustine (New Rochelle: New City, 1993) Sermons, Volume III/7, Sermon 236A.3, p. 48.

 

𝘍𝘰𝘳 đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜łđ˜ą (đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź) đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜łđ˜ą; đ˜«đ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜” 𝘱𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘮𝘰 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘱𝘯, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘱𝘯 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”. 𝘍𝘰𝘳 𝘰𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜ș đ˜ąđ˜€đ˜€đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜“đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„ 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, ‘𝘖𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 𝘐 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©,’ đ˜Łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜„ 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, ‘đ˜›đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„.’ 𝘖𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜§đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Š, 𝘏𝘩 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„, 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. 𝘍𝘰𝘳 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź (đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜łđ˜ą) 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”; đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘰𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜§đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼𝘮𝘩𝘭𝘧 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜”. 𝘍𝘰𝘳 đ˜°đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜§đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜Ż 𝘯𝘰 𝘼𝘱𝘯 𝘭𝘱đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘮 𝘭𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜‘đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜Ž. đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜§đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Š, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜§đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜Šđ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 𝘏đ˜Ș𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬𝘩đ˜ș𝘮 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜šđ˜„đ˜°đ˜ź 𝘰𝘧 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Žđ˜°đ˜Ż 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜° 𝘮𝘱đ˜ș, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜±đ˜°đ˜žđ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘰𝘧 𝘣đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘭𝘰𝘰𝘮đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 𝘮đ˜Ș𝘯𝘮. 𝘍𝘰𝘳 đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘱𝘭𝘭đ˜ș đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜€đ˜© đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜ș đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź (đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜łđ˜ą); đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜° 𝘣𝘩 đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜°đ˜°đ˜„ 𝘱𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘱𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. — Augustine Tractate CXXIV; Philip Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: First Series, Volume VII Tractate CXXIV

 

đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜„ đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜„đ˜ș 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼, ‘đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„.’ 𝘏𝘩 đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜„ đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜„đ˜ș đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜łđ˜„, ‘đ˜‰đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶, 𝘚đ˜Ș𝘼𝘰𝘯 𝘉𝘱𝘳𝘑𝘰𝘯𝘱, đ˜Łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜§đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜© đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Łđ˜­đ˜°đ˜°đ˜„ đ˜„đ˜Șđ˜„ đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜­ đ˜Șđ˜” đ˜”đ˜° đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜žđ˜©đ˜° đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż. đ˜ˆđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘐 đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜Ž 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜žđ˜°đ˜łđ˜­đ˜„ đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜Čđ˜¶đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł‘ (đ˜”đ˜” 16:16-18). đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼𝘮𝘩𝘭𝘧 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Ș𝘭𝘩 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Źđ˜ș, 𝘾𝘱𝘮 𝘰𝘯𝘭đ˜ș đ˜Żđ˜ąđ˜źđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź. đ˜›đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Ž đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘳𝘰𝘮𝘩 𝘱𝘹𝘱đ˜Ș𝘯, đ˜”đ˜° 𝘼𝘱𝘬𝘩 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘮𝘰𝘭đ˜Șđ˜„ đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜łđ˜°đ˜Żđ˜š; đ˜Łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜žđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜­đ˜„ đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Š đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜„, đ˜Ș𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜„đ˜Żđ˜” 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜„. — John Rotelle, Ed., The Works of Saint Augustine (New Rochelle: New City, 1993) Sermons, Volume III/7, Sermon 244.1, p. 95

 

đ˜ˆđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, 𝘰𝘯𝘩 đ˜Žđ˜±đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜Źđ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 𝘧𝘰𝘳 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜” 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ź, 𝘰𝘯𝘩 𝘧𝘰𝘳 𝘱𝘭𝘭, 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„ (đ˜”đ˜” 16:15-16)…đ˜ˆđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘐 đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶: đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł; đ˜Łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜Š 𝘐 𝘱𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Źđ˜ș, đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜ 𝘼𝘩𝘱𝘯, đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź đ˜„đ˜°đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Żđ˜” đ˜€đ˜°đ˜źđ˜Š 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Źđ˜ș, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Źđ˜ș 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜«đ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜” 𝘱𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜„đ˜°đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Żđ˜” đ˜€đ˜°đ˜źđ˜Š 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘱𝘯, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘱𝘯 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”; đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© (đ˜”đ˜” 16:17-18); đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, 𝘰𝘳 đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Źđ˜ș, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Š đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„. 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜šđ˜©; 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶, đ˜Łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 𝘱𝘯𝘮𝘾𝘩𝘳 𝘰𝘧 đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜Ž đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. — John Rotelle, O.S.A. Ed., The Works of Saint Augustine (New Rochelle: New City Press, 1993), Sermons, Volume III/7, Sermon 270.2, p. 289  

 

đ˜Łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜Š 𝘰𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„, 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜Ž 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜žđ˜°đ˜łđ˜­đ˜„ đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜°đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜€đ˜°đ˜źđ˜Š đ˜Șđ˜” (đ˜”đ˜”. 16:18). 𝘕𝘰𝘾 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” (1 𝘊𝘰𝘳. 10:4). 𝘞𝘱𝘮 đ˜Șđ˜” đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜­ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜€đ˜łđ˜¶đ˜€đ˜Ș𝘧đ˜Șđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘧𝘰𝘳 đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶? đ˜đ˜°đ˜­đ˜„ 𝘰𝘯 đ˜”đ˜° đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜čđ˜”đ˜Ž, đ˜­đ˜°đ˜·đ˜Š đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜čđ˜”đ˜Ž, đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜±đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ź đ˜Ș𝘯 𝘱 đ˜§đ˜łđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Żđ˜ąđ˜­ đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜Šđ˜§đ˜¶đ˜­ 𝘼𝘱𝘯𝘯𝘩𝘳. — John Rotelle, Ed., The Works of Saint Augustine (New Rochelle: New City Press, 1995), Sermons, Volume III/10,Sermon 358.5, p. 193

 

đ˜“đ˜Šđ˜” đ˜¶đ˜Ž đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜”đ˜° 𝘼đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜Žđ˜±đ˜Šđ˜­: ‘đ˜œđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘔đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©.’ đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜§đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Š đ˜šđ˜©đ˜Š đ˜€đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Šđ˜”đ˜© 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Ž 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜łđ˜”đ˜©, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜ź 𝘏𝘩 đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜© 𝘾đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż 𝘱 đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź. đ˜‰đ˜¶đ˜” đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© 𝘼đ˜Șđ˜šđ˜©đ˜” 𝘣𝘩 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜° 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜źđ˜ąđ˜„đ˜Š đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź? 𝘏𝘩𝘱𝘳 đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜­ 𝘮𝘱đ˜șđ˜Ș𝘯𝘹: ‘đ˜‰đ˜¶đ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜™đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”.’ 𝘖𝘯 𝘏đ˜Ș𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜§đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Š đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘾𝘩 đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Š 𝘣𝘩𝘩𝘯. — Philip Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1956), Volume VIII, Saint Augustin, Exposition on the Book of Psalms, Psalm LXI.3, p. 249.

 

𝘐𝘯 𝘱 đ˜±đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜ąđ˜šđ˜Š đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 𝘣𝘰𝘰𝘬, 𝘐 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„ đ˜ąđ˜Łđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜ˆđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜­đ˜Š đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł: ‘𝘖𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼 𝘱𝘮 𝘰𝘯 𝘱 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜”.’…đ˜‰đ˜¶đ˜” 𝘐 𝘬𝘯𝘰𝘾 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜ș 𝘧𝘳𝘩đ˜Čđ˜¶đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜­đ˜ș đ˜ąđ˜” 𝘱 đ˜­đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜”đ˜Ș𝘼𝘩, 𝘐 𝘮𝘰 𝘩đ˜čđ˜±đ˜­đ˜ąđ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜“đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„ 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„: ‘đ˜›đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜” đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©,’ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Șđ˜” 𝘣𝘩 đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜°đ˜°đ˜„ 𝘱𝘮 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜” đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż 𝘏đ˜Ș𝘼 đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜ź đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘮𝘱đ˜șđ˜Ș𝘯𝘹: ‘đ˜›đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„,’ đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘮𝘰 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜ąđ˜§đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Žđ˜°đ˜Ż 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜” đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Ž đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜Šđ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜„đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬𝘩đ˜ș𝘮 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜šđ˜„đ˜°đ˜ź 𝘰𝘧 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż.’ 𝘍𝘰𝘳, ‘đ˜›đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜” đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜”đ˜›đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Źđ˜žđ˜ąđ˜Ž 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼. đ˜‰đ˜¶đ˜”đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”,’ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜ź, 𝘱𝘮 𝘱𝘭𝘮𝘰 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜­đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜Ž, 𝘚đ˜Ș𝘼𝘰𝘯 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł. đ˜‰đ˜¶đ˜” đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜€đ˜Șđ˜„đ˜Š đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜”đ˜žđ˜° đ˜°đ˜±đ˜Ș𝘯đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯𝘮 đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘼𝘰𝘳𝘩 đ˜±đ˜łđ˜°đ˜Łđ˜ąđ˜Łđ˜­đ˜Š. — The Fathers of the Church (Washington D.C., Catholic University, 1968), Saint Augustine, The Retractations Chapter 20.1:.

 

Here I address the quotations of St. Augustine’s Sermons and Retractions regarding the Petrine theory. Augustine’s stances on the issue are better summarized in his own statement we just read in his ‘Retractationes’, which are not actual retractions or recantations as we understand them in the common English; but reconsiderations, re-examinations or revisions as many Latin scholars have pointed out.

 

As he himself described, Augustine originally maintained the Petrine theory, situating Peter as the Rock in Matthew 16:18. Later, he preached such rock was Peter’s confession or statement of faith. Finally, he also adopted the simpler view Christ is Himself the rock, probably as a result of his constant reference to the Pauline understanding of Christ as the rock from which believers drink and his work on the Psalms.

 

So here we have St. Augustine upholding three different perspectives on the passage — how does He (and therefore ‘we’) reconcile them? To answer this, we need to first have in consideration two things regarding Catholic theology and the historical context in which these words were written:

 

  1. No Christian in communion with the Catholic Church ever argued the See of Peter had no supreme authority over the universal church. We do find statements by Tertullian who first acknowledged the office of Peter in ‘Against Heresies’ to have such authority, but once he became a heretic, he recanted his position in ‘On Modesty’.
  2. Because of the latter, neither the doctrine of Papal Infallibility needed to be rigorously defined nor the non-Petrine interpretation of the rock condemned. If Augustine, not being considered infallible, had maintained that the Church at large (and not Peter alone) received the power of the keys after this doctrine was defined, he would have been anathematized by the Council. But in his writings, he never denies or detaches this power from the figure of St. Peter, he only leaves the door open for the minister in the Church to opt for a more pastoral interpretation or a more doctrinal one.

 

It is only as a result of the many controversies questioning the authority of the Bishop of Rome that the Church infallibly defined the verses in question as follow: đ˜”đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ž 16:16-19 (“đ˜›đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜” đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜¶đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©“) đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜‘đ˜°đ˜©đ˜Ż 21:15-17 (“đ˜đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș 𝘭𝘱𝘼𝘣𝘮 . . . đ˜đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜±“) đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜”đ˜ąđ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜„đ˜°đ˜€đ˜”đ˜łđ˜Ș𝘯𝘩 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜±đ˜ąđ˜­ đ˜šđ˜¶đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜źđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜ș. — Questions People Ask About the Catholic Church by Fr. Leslie Rumble (Kensington, Australia: Chevalier, 1972), pp. 176-177.

 

In Vatican I, Session 4, Chapter 1 we find the following:

  1. 𝘞𝘩 đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜© đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜€đ˜­đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜Š đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜”, đ˜ąđ˜€đ˜€đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜”đ˜° đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜°đ˜Žđ˜±đ˜Šđ˜­ đ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Șđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜€đ˜Š, 𝘱 đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜źđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜ș 𝘰𝘧 đ˜«đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜„đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 đ˜°đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜­đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© 𝘰𝘧 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„ 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜Șđ˜źđ˜źđ˜Šđ˜„đ˜Șđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜ș đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜„đ˜Șđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜”đ˜­đ˜ș đ˜±đ˜łđ˜°đ˜źđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Łđ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜ąđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜­đ˜Š đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘰𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼 𝘣đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜­đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„.
  2. đ˜đ˜” 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜”đ˜° 𝘚đ˜Ș𝘼𝘰𝘯 𝘱𝘭𝘰𝘯𝘩, đ˜”đ˜° đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜ź đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜„ đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜„đ˜ș 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„ đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ 𝘣𝘩 đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜±đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Ž, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜“đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„, đ˜ąđ˜§đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Ș𝘰𝘯, đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘮𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„, đ˜Žđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Źđ˜Š đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜žđ˜°đ˜łđ˜„đ˜Ž:
  3. đ˜‰đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶, 𝘚đ˜Ș𝘼𝘰𝘯 𝘉𝘱𝘳𝘑𝘰𝘯𝘱. 𝘍𝘰𝘳 đ˜§đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜© đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Łđ˜­đ˜°đ˜°đ˜„ đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Ž đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜­đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜° đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜žđ˜©đ˜° đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż. đ˜ˆđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘐 đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶, đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘰𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜Ž 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜žđ˜°đ˜łđ˜­đ˜„ đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜·đ˜ąđ˜Ș𝘭 𝘱𝘹𝘱đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜Șđ˜”. 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 𝘹đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Š đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬𝘩đ˜ș𝘮 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜šđ˜„đ˜°đ˜ź 𝘰𝘧 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘣đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘰𝘯 đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜łđ˜”đ˜© đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ 𝘣𝘩 đ˜Łđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘭𝘰𝘰𝘮𝘩 𝘰𝘯 đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜łđ˜”đ˜© đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ 𝘣𝘩 đ˜­đ˜°đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż.
  4. đ˜ˆđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Șđ˜” 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜”đ˜° đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘱𝘭𝘰𝘯𝘩 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜‘đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜Ž, đ˜ąđ˜§đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜łđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯, đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Șđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜«đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜„đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜šđ˜¶đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜źđ˜Š đ˜—đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜°đ˜ł đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜łđ˜¶đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘰𝘧 đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜­đ˜Š đ˜§đ˜°đ˜­đ˜„, 𝘮𝘱đ˜șđ˜Ș𝘯𝘹:
  5. đ˜đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș 𝘭𝘱𝘼𝘣𝘮, đ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜±..
  6. 𝘛𝘰 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜ąđ˜Łđ˜Žđ˜°đ˜­đ˜¶đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜ș 𝘼𝘱𝘯đ˜Șđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜šđ˜€đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜±đ˜”đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Ž, 𝘱𝘮 đ˜Șđ˜” đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Ž 𝘱𝘭𝘾𝘱đ˜ș𝘮 𝘣𝘩𝘩𝘯 đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜°đ˜°đ˜„ 𝘣đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜­đ˜Șđ˜€ đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜€đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜łđ˜­đ˜ș đ˜°đ˜±đ˜±đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜„đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜°đ˜łđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜°đ˜±đ˜Ș𝘯đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯𝘮 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜žđ˜©đ˜° 𝘼đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘧𝘰𝘳𝘼 𝘰𝘧 đ˜šđ˜°đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Żđ˜źđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜” đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜­đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„ đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜ąđ˜Łđ˜­đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜€đ˜Š đ˜”đ˜° đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜” 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜ąđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Ž, đ˜”đ˜ąđ˜Źđ˜Šđ˜Ż 𝘮đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹𝘭đ˜ș 𝘰𝘳 đ˜€đ˜°đ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜€đ˜”đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜ș, 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜„đ˜°đ˜žđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘣đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” 𝘾đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜© 𝘱 đ˜”đ˜łđ˜¶đ˜Š đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜±đ˜łđ˜°đ˜±đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜źđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜ș 𝘰𝘧 đ˜«đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜„đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯.
  7. đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘮𝘱𝘼𝘩 𝘼𝘱đ˜ș 𝘣𝘩 𝘮𝘱đ˜Șđ˜„ 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜žđ˜©đ˜° đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜łđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜źđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜ș 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜Șđ˜źđ˜źđ˜Šđ˜„đ˜Șđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜ș đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜„đ˜Șđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜”đ˜­đ˜ș 𝘰𝘯 đ˜Łđ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼𝘮𝘩𝘭𝘧, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜” đ˜łđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘰𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Șđ˜” 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜łđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜šđ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜” đ˜Șđ˜” 𝘾𝘱𝘮 đ˜”đ˜łđ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜Žđ˜źđ˜Șđ˜”đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼 đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜€đ˜ąđ˜±đ˜ąđ˜€đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜ș 𝘱𝘮 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘼đ˜Ș𝘯đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł.
  8. đ™đ™đ™šđ™§đ™šđ™›đ™€đ™§đ™š, 𝙞𝙛 đ™–đ™Łđ™źđ™€đ™Łđ™š 𝙹𝙖𝙼𝙹 đ™©đ™đ™–đ™© 𝙗𝙡𝙚𝙹𝙹𝙚𝙙 đ™‹đ™šđ™©đ™šđ™§ đ™©đ™đ™š đ™–đ™„đ™€đ™šđ™©đ™Ąđ™š 𝙬𝙖𝙹 đ™Łđ™€đ™© đ™–đ™„đ™„đ™€đ™žđ™Łđ™©đ™šđ™™ 𝙗𝙼 đ˜Ÿđ™đ™§đ™žđ™šđ™© đ™©đ™đ™š đ™Ąđ™€đ™§đ™™ 𝙖𝙹 đ™„đ™§đ™žđ™Łđ™˜đ™š đ™€đ™› 𝙖𝙡𝙡 đ™©đ™đ™š đ™–đ™„đ™€đ™šđ™©đ™Ąđ™šđ™š 𝙖𝙣𝙙 đ™«đ™žđ™šđ™žđ™—đ™Ąđ™š 𝙝𝙚𝙖𝙙 đ™€đ™› đ™©đ™đ™š đ™Źđ™đ™€đ™Ąđ™š đ˜Ÿđ™đ™Ș𝙧𝙘𝙝 đ™ąđ™žđ™Ąđ™žđ™©đ™–đ™Łđ™©; đ™€đ™§ đ™©đ™đ™–đ™© đ™žđ™© 𝙬𝙖𝙹 𝙖 đ™„đ™§đ™žđ™ąđ™–đ™˜đ™ź đ™€đ™› đ™đ™€đ™Łđ™€đ™§ đ™€đ™Łđ™Ąđ™ź 𝙖𝙣𝙙 đ™Łđ™€đ™© đ™€đ™Łđ™š đ™€đ™› đ™©đ™§đ™Ș𝙚 𝙖𝙣𝙙 đ™„đ™§đ™€đ™„đ™šđ™§ 𝙟đ™Șđ™§đ™žđ™šđ™™đ™žđ™˜đ™©đ™žđ™€đ™Ł đ™©đ™đ™–đ™© 𝙝𝙚 đ™™đ™žđ™§đ™šđ™˜đ™©đ™Ąđ™ź 𝙖𝙣𝙙 đ™žđ™ąđ™ąđ™šđ™™đ™žđ™–đ™©đ™šđ™Ąđ™ź đ™§đ™šđ™˜đ™šđ™žđ™«đ™šđ™™ đ™›đ™§đ™€đ™ą đ™€đ™Ș𝙧 đ™Ąđ™€đ™§đ™™ 𝙅𝙚𝙹đ™Ș𝙹 đ˜Ÿđ™đ™§đ™žđ™šđ™© 𝙝𝙞𝙱𝙹𝙚𝙡𝙛: đ™Ąđ™šđ™© 𝙝𝙞𝙱 𝙗𝙚 đ™–đ™Łđ™–đ™©đ™đ™šđ™ąđ™–.

 

Having this in mind, the Catechism teaches four things, reconciling the issue for us in the process:

  1. đ˜”đ˜°đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘣đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜łđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜Š 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘏𝘰𝘭đ˜ș đ˜šđ˜±đ˜Ș𝘳đ˜Șđ˜” đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜„đ˜łđ˜ąđ˜žđ˜Ż 𝘣đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł, 𝘾𝘩 𝘣𝘩𝘭đ˜Șđ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Š đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜‘đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜Ž đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Ž: ‘đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„.’ 𝘖𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 𝘧𝘱đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜© đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘣đ˜ș đ˜šđ˜”. đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜” đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. (CCC 424)
  2. 𝘚đ˜Ș𝘼𝘰𝘯 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜°đ˜­đ˜„đ˜Ž đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘧đ˜Șđ˜łđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜±đ˜­đ˜ąđ˜€đ˜Š đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜€đ˜°đ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜šđ˜Š 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜›đ˜žđ˜Šđ˜­đ˜·đ˜Š; đ˜‘đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜Ž đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜łđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘱 đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜Șđ˜Čđ˜¶đ˜Š 𝘼đ˜Ș𝘮𝘮đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 đ˜”đ˜° đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼. đ˜›đ˜©đ˜łđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜šđ˜© 𝘱 đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜ąđ˜„ đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„: “đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘚𝘰𝘯 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘭đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„.” đ˜–đ˜¶đ˜ł đ˜“đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Ż đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜€đ˜­đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼: “đ˜ đ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘱𝘳𝘩 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘰𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜šđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜Ž 𝘰𝘧 đ˜đ˜ąđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜Ž 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜” đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜·đ˜ąđ˜Ș𝘭 𝘱𝘹𝘱đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜Žđ˜” đ˜Șđ˜”.” đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜­đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜šđ˜”đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜Š“, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜¶đ˜Ž đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Ž đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©, đ˜Łđ˜¶đ˜Șđ˜­đ˜” 𝘰𝘯 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, 𝘰𝘧 đ˜·đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜”đ˜°đ˜łđ˜ș đ˜°đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜±đ˜°đ˜žđ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Ž 𝘰𝘧 đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜©. đ˜‰đ˜Šđ˜€đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜Š 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘧𝘱đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜© đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 𝘳𝘩𝘼𝘱đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜Źđ˜ąđ˜Łđ˜­đ˜Š đ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. 𝘏đ˜Ș𝘮 𝘼đ˜Ș𝘮𝘮đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 𝘣𝘩 đ˜”đ˜° đ˜Źđ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜± đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 𝘧𝘱đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜© 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘼 đ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜ș đ˜­đ˜ąđ˜±đ˜Žđ˜Š đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜łđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜šđ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Ż đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Łđ˜łđ˜°đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Ž đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜Șđ˜”. (CCC 552)
  3. đ˜‘đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜Ž đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜łđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘱 đ˜Žđ˜±đ˜Šđ˜€đ˜Ș𝘧đ˜Șđ˜€ đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜”đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜° đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł: “𝘐 𝘾đ˜Ș𝘭𝘭 𝘹đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Š đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬𝘩đ˜ș𝘮 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜šđ˜„đ˜°đ˜ź 𝘰𝘧 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘣đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘰𝘯 đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜łđ˜”đ˜© đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ 𝘣𝘩 đ˜Łđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜șđ˜°đ˜¶ 𝘭𝘰𝘰𝘮𝘩 𝘰𝘯 đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜łđ˜”đ˜© đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­ 𝘣𝘩 đ˜­đ˜°đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż.” đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜±đ˜°đ˜žđ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬𝘩đ˜șđ˜Žđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜Șđ˜šđ˜Żđ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜Ž đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜”đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜° đ˜šđ˜°đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜©đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜Š 𝘰𝘧 đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜„, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. đ˜‘đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜Ž, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Žđ˜°đ˜°đ˜„ đ˜šđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜±đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜„, đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜§đ˜Șđ˜łđ˜źđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜źđ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Š đ˜ąđ˜§đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜™đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜łđ˜łđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯: “đ˜đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘼đ˜ș đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜Šđ˜±.” đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜±đ˜°đ˜žđ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜”đ˜°đ˜Łđ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜­đ˜°đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜Šđ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜Żđ˜°đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜Ž đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜”đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜° đ˜ąđ˜Łđ˜Žđ˜°đ˜­đ˜·đ˜Š 𝘮đ˜Ș𝘯𝘮, đ˜”đ˜° đ˜±đ˜łđ˜°đ˜Żđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜€đ˜Š đ˜„đ˜°đ˜€đ˜”đ˜łđ˜Ș𝘯𝘱𝘭 đ˜«đ˜¶đ˜„đ˜šđ˜Šđ˜źđ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜Ž, đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° 𝘼𝘱𝘬𝘩 đ˜„đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜€đ˜Șđ˜±đ˜­đ˜Ș𝘯𝘱𝘳đ˜ș đ˜„đ˜Šđ˜€đ˜Ș𝘮đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯𝘮 đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. đ˜‘đ˜Šđ˜Žđ˜¶đ˜Ž đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜łđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜ąđ˜¶đ˜”đ˜©đ˜°đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜”đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜° đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜łđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜šđ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘼đ˜Ș𝘯đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜łđ˜ș 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜ąđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Ž đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘯 đ˜±đ˜ąđ˜łđ˜”đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜¶đ˜­đ˜ąđ˜ł đ˜”đ˜©đ˜łđ˜°đ˜¶đ˜šđ˜© đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘼đ˜Ș𝘯đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜łđ˜ș 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘰𝘯𝘭đ˜ș 𝘰𝘯𝘩 đ˜”đ˜° đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜ź đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Žđ˜±đ˜Šđ˜€đ˜Ș𝘧đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜ąđ˜­đ˜­đ˜ș đ˜Šđ˜Żđ˜”đ˜łđ˜¶đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬𝘩đ˜ș𝘮 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜šđ˜„đ˜°đ˜ź. (CCC 553)
  4. đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜“đ˜°đ˜łđ˜„ đ˜źđ˜ąđ˜„đ˜Š 𝘚đ˜Ș𝘼𝘰𝘯 đ™–đ™Ąđ™€đ™Łđ™š, đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜ź đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Żđ˜ąđ˜źđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł, đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜°đ˜€đ˜Źđ˜°đ˜§ đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©. 𝘏𝘩 đ˜šđ˜ąđ˜·đ˜Š đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘬𝘩đ˜ș𝘮 𝘰𝘧 đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜© đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜¶đ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘼 đ˜Žđ˜©đ˜Šđ˜±đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜„ 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜­đ˜Š đ˜§đ˜­đ˜°đ˜€đ˜Ź. “đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘰𝘧𝘧đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜Š 𝘰𝘧 𝘣đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ 𝘭𝘰𝘰𝘮đ˜Ș𝘯𝘹 đ˜žđ˜©đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜© 𝘾𝘱𝘮 𝘹đ˜Șđ˜·đ˜Šđ˜Ż đ˜”đ˜° đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł 𝘾𝘱𝘮 𝘱𝘭𝘮𝘰 𝘱𝘮𝘮đ˜Șđ˜šđ˜Żđ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜€đ˜°đ˜­đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜šđ˜Š 𝘰𝘧 đ˜ąđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Ž đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜Șđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜° đ˜Șđ˜”đ˜Ž đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ąđ˜„.” đ˜›đ˜©đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜±đ˜ąđ˜Žđ˜”đ˜°đ˜łđ˜ąđ˜­ 𝘰𝘧𝘧đ˜Șđ˜€đ˜Š 𝘰𝘧 đ˜—đ˜Šđ˜”đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜°đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜ąđ˜±đ˜°đ˜Žđ˜”đ˜­đ˜Šđ˜Ž 𝘣𝘩𝘭𝘰𝘯𝘹𝘮 đ˜”đ˜° đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜Šđ˜©đ˜¶đ˜łđ˜€đ˜©đ˜Ž đ˜·đ˜Šđ˜łđ˜ș đ˜§đ˜°đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜ąđ˜”đ˜Ș𝘰𝘯 đ˜ąđ˜Żđ˜„ đ˜Ș𝘮 đ˜€đ˜°đ˜Żđ˜”đ˜Șđ˜Żđ˜¶đ˜Šđ˜„ 𝘣đ˜ș đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š 𝘣đ˜Șđ˜Žđ˜©đ˜°đ˜±đ˜Ž đ˜¶đ˜Żđ˜„đ˜Šđ˜ł đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜±đ˜łđ˜Șđ˜źđ˜ąđ˜€đ˜ș 𝘰𝘧 đ˜”đ˜©đ˜Š đ˜—đ˜°đ˜±đ˜Š (CCC 881).

The first and second point clearly collect most, if not all of the historic Catholic interpretations attributed to this passage. We see the Catechism, just like Augustine, teaches that Peter the man, his confession of faith and Christ Himself are all alluded as the foundational rocks. The Catechism later goes on verse by verse to identify the source of doctrinal developments.

 

Based on the third point, I must say non-Catholics who often attack papal supremacy by claiming Peter is not the rock in Mt 16:18 are quite missing the point. It is the handing of the keys alluded in the verse which alone confers Peter supreme authority over the rest of the Church, which is better understood in the light of Isaiah 22:22.

 

In point number 4, when the Catechism goes on to say “The Lord made Simon alone”, ‘alone’ is used in the individual sense, in comparison to the rest of the Apostles and the episcopal college. Thus, it does not exclude the understanding that the rock can be Simon’s confession of faith and Christ himself.

 

We conclude then, when it comes to putting to the test the Petrine theory of authority, the non-Catholic should challenge the power of the keys and the commission of Christ to feed His sheep, not the identity of the rock.

 

Acknowledging this, we also see in Catholic teaching there is room for more than one interpretation since they all approach the issue from different angles. We can say the rock in formal sense refers to Peter himself, just as the woman clothed with the sun refers to Mary. The rock in the material sense refers to a Christ-centered faith, since that is what Peter’s mission is fueled by. The rock in the efficient sense refers to Christ Himself, the fountainhead of grace through which the Holy Spirit edifies us in Him. Such understanding now makes much more sense thanks to the tireless work of Fathers like St. Augustine, who very often is juxtaposed against Catholic theology, but happened to be the one of the Church’s most loyal and revered servants.

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